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Specific Types of Fat

Fri, 18 May 2007 Source American Diabetes Association

Saturated Fat

Everyone should eat less saturated fat. Saturated fat can raise your cholesterol level which increases your chances of having heart disease. Foods containing saturated fat include:

  • High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour cream.
  • High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs
  • Lard
  • Butter
  • Fatback and salt pork
  • Cream sauces
  • Gravy made with meat drippings
  • Chocolate
  • Palm oil and palm kernel oil
  • Coconut and coconut oil
  • Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin

Try to eat less than 7% of your total calories as saturated fat. For most people this means less than 15 grams of saturated fat per day. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. To find out a specific goal for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider.

Saturated fat grams are listed on the label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with less saturated fat. Foods with 1 gram or less saturated fat per serving are considered low in saturated fat.

Trans Fat

Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process is called hydrogenation. Trans fats act like saturated fats and can raise your cholesterol level. Trans fats are listed on the label, making it easier to identify these foods. Unless there is at least 0.5 grams or more of trans fat in a food, the label can claim 0 grams. If you want to avoid as much trans fat as possible, you must read the ingredient list on food labels. Look for words like hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil. Select foods that either do not contain hydrogenated oil or where a liquid oil is listed first in the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include:

  • Processed foods like snacks (crackers and chips) and baked goods (muffins, cookies and cakes) with hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil
  • Stick margarines
  • Shortening
  • Some fast food items such as french fries

Cholesterol

Your body makes some of the cholesterol in your blood. The rest comes from foods you eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the food you eat may increase your blood cholesterol, so it's a good idea to eat less than 200 mg per day. Cholesterol is required on the label if the food contains it. Sources of cholesterol include:

  • High-fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese)
  • Egg yolks
  • Liver and other organ meats
  • High-fat meat and poultry skin

Monounsaturated Fat

Monounsaturated fats are called “good or healthy” fats because they can lower your bad (LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include:

  • Avocado
  • Canola oil: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
  • Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts
  • Olive oil and olives
  • Peanut butter and peanut oil
  • Sesame seeds

ADA recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than saturated or trans fats in your diet. To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. Sprinkling a few nuts or sesame seeds on a salad is an easy way to eat more monounsaturated fats. But be careful! Nuts and oils are high in calories, like all fats. If you are trying to lose or maintain your weight, you want to eat small portions of these foods. For example, 6 almonds or 4 pecan halves have the same number of calories as 1 teaspoon of oil or butter. Work with your dietitian to include healthy fats into your meal plan without increasing your total calories.

Monounsaturated fats are not required on the label.  Some foods do list them – particularly if they are a good source.

Polyunsaturated Fat

Polyunsaturated fats are also “healthy” fats. ADA recommends that you include these in your diet as well as monounsaturated fats. Sources of polyunsaturated fats are:

  • Corn oil
  • Cottonseed oil
  • Safflower oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Walnuts
  • Pumpkin or sunflower seeds
  • Soft (tub) margarine
  • Mayonnaise
  • Salad dressings

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids help prevent clogging of the arteries. Some types of fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids. ADA recommends eating non-fried fish 2 or 3 times a week. Sources include:

  • Albacore tuna
  • Herring
  • Mackerel
  • Rainbow trout
  • Sardines
  • Salmon

Some plant foods are also sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Sources include:

  • Tofu and other soybean products
  • Walnuts
  • Flaxseed and flaxseed oil
  • Canola oil

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